*This summary of the video was created by an AI. It might contain some inaccuracies.*

## 00:00:00 – 00:34:05

The video provides a comprehensive review of key concepts in Unit One of AP Pre-Calculus, focusing on polynomial and rational functions. Michael PR emphasizes understanding how these functions change, covering topics such as finding zeros, analyzing function intervals, and understanding function behavior via concavity and extrema points. The video also delves into the end behavior of functions using limit notation, discussing the impact of leading coefficients and polynomial degrees. Specific attention is given to identifying key features of rational functions like zeros, holes, and vertical asymptotes, and understanding transformations including vertical and horizontal dilations, translations, and reflections. Lastly, solving equations through both manual calculations and graphing techniques using a calculator is highlighted as essential for exam preparation. Key terms include concavity, extrema, end behavior, transformations, and inflection points.

### 00:00:00

In this part of the video, Michael PR provides a concise review of Unit One for AP Pre-Calculus, which focuses on polynomial and rational functions. He emphasizes understanding how these functions change. Key topics discussed include finding the zeros of a function (which are the x-values producing an output of zero), and the importance of setting the function equal to zero and factoring for solutions. For rational functions, he points out focusing on the numerator while being cautious of any common values that make both the numerator and the denominator zero, leading to a hole instead of a zero. Additionally, he explains how to determine where function values are positive or negative by assessing whether the function is above or below the x-axis. When graphing is not available, he demonstrates how to create a number line to test intervals for where the function is greater or less than zero.

### 00:05:00

In this part of the video, the speaker discusses the behavior of a function over different intervals by analyzing where the function is positive, negative, or equal to zero. Specifically, they explain that at certain points like negative a, there is a hole, and at negative C, there is a vertical asymptote, both rendering those points neither positive nor negative. At point B, the function is zero, indicating it’s open for less than zero and can be filled in for less than or equal to zero.

The speaker then dives into function intervals, explaining that a function is increasing over interval A to B if the output values increase as input values increase, which can be visualized on a graph. Conversely, a function is decreasing if the output values decrease as input values increase, which can also be visualized graphically.

They introduce the concepts of maximum and minimum points, known as extremas, highlighting absolute extremas as the highest or lowest values overall, and relative extremas as the highest or lowest values within a particular interval. They use a graph to illustrate how to identify these points.

Lastly, the speaker introduces concavity, explaining that a graph is concave up if the rate of change is increasing over an interval and concave down if the rate of change is decreasing. This segment sets the stage to delve deeper into understanding concavity on a graph.

### 00:10:00

In this part of the video, the discussion focuses on the behavior of function values, their positivity, and the concept of concavity, which is tied to the rate of change. It explains that:

– When function values decrease from point A to B above the x-axis, they are positive, but the rates of change are negative and increasingly negative, indicating concave down behavior.

– When function values increase and are above the x-axis from point A to B, the rates of change remain positive but become less positive, also indicating concave down.

– If function values are decreasing and below the x-axis, the rates of change are negative but become less negative, indicating concave up.

– When function values increase from point A to B, crossing the x-axis with both positive and negative values, the rates of change are positive and increasingly positive, indicating concave up.

The term “inflection point” is introduced, which denotes a switch from concave up to concave down (or vice versa).

### 00:15:00

In this part of the video, the speaker explains the concepts of concavity, average rate of change, and their application to linear and quadratic functions. The speaker elaborates on concavity by showing that a graph can be concave up, linear, or concave down based on the behavior of the rates of change. For concave up, rates of change increase from negative to positive; for linear, the rate of change is constant; and for concave down, the rates of change diminish. Next, the speaker describes the average rate of change as the slope of the secant line between two points on a graph, calculated by dividing the difference in function values by the difference in input values. This concept is illustrated using both random points and an input-output table for linear functions, demonstrating that the average rate of change is constant. In contrast, for quadratic functions, the average rate of change over consecutive, equal-length intervals changes linearly, exemplified through another input-output table.

### 00:20:00

In this segment, the video explains the end behavior of functions, particularly in the context of AP Calculus. It describes how to use limit notation to denote a function’s behavior as ( x ) approaches positive or negative infinity. The video discusses how the end behavior can be determined by examining the degree and the leading coefficient of polynomials. For even-degree polynomials, both ends of the function either rise or fall together, while for odd-degree polynomials, one end rises as the other falls, depending on whether the leading coefficient is positive or negative. The segment also touches on rational functions, explaining how the end behavior can be assessed by dividing the leading terms, resulting in different scenarios such as horizontal asymptotes or polynomial behavior, which influence the function’s behavior at infinity.

### 00:25:00

In this part of the video, the speaker explains the end behavior of a rational function and how it matches the resulting polynomial function’s behavior. They discuss specific cases like slant asymptotes, which occur when the polynomial quotient is linear. The speaker also details identifying zeros, holes, and vertical asymptotes in rational functions, emphasizing the importance of factoring. They then transition to transformations of functions, describing vertical dilation, vertical translation, and horizontal dilation, including how each transformation affects the function’s graph.

### 00:30:00

In this part of the video, the speaker discusses the impacts of various transformations on a function. If B is negative, it causes a reflection across the y-axis. The addition or subtraction of a constant (C) inside the function results in horizontal translations: X plus C moves left, X minus C moves right, contradicting the direct interpretation. An example function G is given, illustrating multiple transformations: vertical dilation by 3 (stretching), vertical translation up by 7, horizontal dilation by half (shrinking), and horizontal translation left by 5. The new coordinates after these transformations would be computed by multiplying the Y value by 3 and adding 7, and multiplying the X value by 0.5 and subtracting 5.

The speaker then transitions to solving equations, emphasizing the likely appearance of such problems on the AP exam. They outline two methods: manually solving by setting the function equal to a value (e.g., 6) and solving with a calculator by graphing and finding intersection points. The use of zoom standard settings in graphing is recommended to efficiently find solutions. The segment concludes with a brief acknowledgment that not all unit 1 topics were covered, focusing instead on key concepts for exam preparation.